Ghana is one of the most populous countries in West Africa and notably the first sub-Saharan African country to gain independence. As of 2017, there were about 28.83 million people living in the country.
In a country of over 28 million people, there is bound to be a lot of ethnic groups and tribes. Ghana has over 100 ethnic groups living together in peace and harmony. Some of these ethnic groups are made up of just a few thousand while others are made up of millions of Ghanaian citizens.
List of Ethnic Groups in Ghana & Details
Below is the list of ethnic groups in Ghana and their details.
The Ashanti people are the largest ethnic group in Ghana making up almost 50% of the entire population in the country. The Ashanti people speak Twi. Currently, there are over 9 million Ashanti people who speak Twi as a first or second language.
The Ashanti Empire was founded in 1670 by the gold-rich Ashanti people. They are famous for their trademark kente cloth, craftsmanship and skillful artwork.
Some of the famous artworks, masks, furniture and sculpture used in Ghana and displayed in Museums were done by the Ashanti people.
The Mole-Dagbon people are the second largest ethnic group in Ghana. They account for 16% of the entire Ghanaian population.
The Mole-Dagbon people can be found in other countries in Africa like Burkina Faso, Benin, Ivory Coast, Togo, etc. They speak the Dagbani language. A majority of the Mole-Dagbon people lives in the northern part of Ghana and practice the Islamic religion.
This ethnic group is divided into other sub-ethnic groups namely: Mossi, Mamprusi and Dagmoba
The Dagomba people make up a large part of the Mole-Dagbon tribe. They practice an oral tradition in which their culture is passed down through music and words of the mouth.
A majority of the Dagomba people are Muslims. Their culture is heavily influenced by Islam which was introduced into ethnic group by Soninke traders between the 12th and 15th centuries.
The Mossi people are historically related to the Dagomba people. They speak the Moore language. They are also known to be skilled crafters. The Mossi people have several traditional and cultural holidays and events which they celebrate every year.
The Mamprusi people make up a major part of the Mole-Dagbon people. There are more than 1 million Mamprusi living in Ghana with many more residing in other African countries like Togo. The Mamprusi people speak Mampruli.
The Ewe people are an ethnic group found in some parts of Africa. The group can be referred to as the third largest ethnic group in Ghana as it has over 3 million people in the country alone. They can also be found in other African countries like Togo where they number to over 2 million.
The Ewe people speak Ewe. The Ewe people are very traditional with over 600 deities and lots of festivals.
In the coastal regions, they are well known in the fishing trade. They are also skilled crafters and contend with the Ashanti people as the original Kente weavers. However, the Kenta cloth is more popular with the Ashanti people.
The Ga-Adangbe people are a major ethnic group in Ghana. Although there are no official figures as to their current population, it is estimated that over 2 million people from this ethnic group reside in the country.
This makes them the fourth largest ethnic group in the country. A majority of them reside in the southeastern coastal region of the Greater Accra region in Accra.
Like other ethnic groups in Ghana, they celebrate several festivals including the popular Asafotu festival. They are also known for their elaborate funeral celebrations and craftsmanship.
The Fante or Mfantsefo are an Akan people. The ethnic group can be found in the southwestern coastal regions of Ghana.
The group is notably the first to have relations with Europeans during the colonial era. Due to their contact with the Europeans, their culture became heavily influenced by British culture and language.
The Fante people are similar to the Ashanti people. These two ethnic groups are sub groups of the Akan people. The Ashanti people makes up the larger population.
The Guan people are believed to be related to the Mossi people of Burkina Faso. The Mossi people are the major ethnic group in Burkina Faso. They also make up a large part of the Ghanaian population.
The Guan people are believed to have migrated from the Northern part of the world before arriving in Ghana in the 11th century. This makes them one of the first settlers in Ghana.
There are many sub-groups and deities of the Guan people. One of such Guan groups – the Effutu people celebrates the famous festival, Aboakyer, every year. The festival is celebrated to honor one of the Guan gods, Penkye – Otu.
The Hausa people are the largest ethnic group in Africa. Most of the Hausa speaking people reside in Northern Nigeria, however, more than 200,000 of them reside in Northern Ghana.
The Hausa people came to Ghana mainly through trade, however, the Hausa language has spread to all parts of the country through other means.
The Kusasi people are a smaller ethnic group in Ghana. They live in northern Ghana and speak the Kusasi language.
The Kusasi people celebrate the Samanpiid Festival every year. The festival which involves dancing and music celebrates a bountiful harvest after the farming season. The festival has been celebrated since 1987.
The Konkomba people can be found in many parts of Ghana. They represent 3.5% of the Ghanaian population. Their native language is Likpakpaln. Just like other Ghanaian ethnic groups, they are also known for their festivals.
Some of their festivals include the Ndinpondaan festival, the fire festival, and the new yam festival. The Ndinpondaan festival is the most widely celebrated festival among the Konkomba people.
There are other sub-groups of the ethnic groups we listed above. There are also many more ethnic groups which make up less than 1% of the Ghanaian population. The ethnic groups listed above are the major and widely recognized ethnic groups in Ghana.
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